Syllabus 24300

Course

Course name, number and section: QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

CHEM 24300

 

Course Description

PREREQUISITE: General Chemistry 10401

Hours/Credits:          7 hours per week, 3 LECT., 4 LAB - 4 credits

 

Catalog Description: Volumetric, Spectrophotometric, Electrochemical and Chromatographic Analyses

 

GENERAL OBJECTIVE: This course intends to introduce the bases of analytical chemistry for chemistry and biochemistry majors. The emphasis is put either on understanding the theoretical aspects of quantitative analysis or problem solving skills.

 

Blackboard website: Please follow the CCNY/CCNY PORTAL

 

LEARNING GOALS:

 

Students should:

  • Know the physical bases for analytical methods discussed during the course and understand them
  • Be aware of the sources of errors and have knowledge how to avoid them
  • Know how to calculate the amount of analyte in the specific application of each method
  • Know how to obtain calibration curve and how to use it for an analytical purpose
  • Know the criteria, which are used for choosing the methods for a particular analysis.

 

CONCEPTUAL THINKING OBJECTIVES:

  • Reading: cause-effect logic, hypothesis testing, summarizing logic
  • Writing:  cause-effect links, objective designing, experiment planning
  • Data analysis: relevant data sources, data treatment, qualitative and quantitative evaluation, data consistency, error analysis
  • Models: cause-effect, correlation, trends

 

LEARNING ACTIVITIES:

 

  • Text reading
  • Class-time (lecture)
  • Hand on experience (laboratory)
  • Group discussion
  • Computer-aid instruction
  • Problem solving (individual)
  • Student-instructor consulting

 

 

Student Learning Outcomes

The objectives of this course contribute to the following departmental educational outcomes:

 

Dept outcome letters

  1. Define the physical and chemical principles of volumetric, gravimetric, electrochemical and basic spectroscopic methods (AA, AE, FTIR).
  2. Identify which analytical method should be used to quantitatively determine certain level of a target analyte in various matrices.
  3. Define the principles and goals of analytical separations including chromatographic techniques ( GC, HPLC),
  4. Understand multiple equilibria in solutions and effectively use chemical equilibrium toward determination of the target analyte conc.
  5. Understand the significance of the random and systematic errors, know the ways to minimize/ avoid them, and use the basic statistical evaluation of errors (standard deviation, variation, t-test, Q-test).
  6. Understand and apply the purpose, principle and significance of calibration techniques for quantitative determination of analyte.
  7. Describe in terms of chemical reactions and equilibrium constants all steps used to quantitatively determine the concentration of analyte
  8. Successfully perform volumetric, gravimetric, spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of the target analyte concentration and evaluate the experimental error.
  9. Write a laboratory report including data and error analysis.

 

 

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Reading List

TEXT BOOK: Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry 9th ed. by D.A. Skoog, D. M. West, F. J. Holler and S.R. Crouch ISBN

                              978-0-495-55828-6

Assignment Schedule

HOME ASSIGNMENT: The course requires extensive reading and understanding of each chapter covered during the lecture. Students are encouraged to solve the problems and find answers to all theoretical questions after each chapter.

 

Grading Policy

GRADING:                                          

No INCOMPLETE Grade

Final -                                                  40%

Laboratory                                           30%

Best three scores of the four in-class examinations 30%

NO make up exams

Syllabus

SCHEDULE OF LECTURES

Schedule of labs is listed in the distributed  lab manuals

 

DATE           TOPICS and High priority areas

                                                                                            

1/29              Introduction, Errors in Chem. Analysis, Random         Errors in Analyses

  • types of errors
  • sources of errors
  • standard deviation, variation

 

1/31              Application of Statistics to Data Treatment

  • t-test
  • Q-test
  • least square method to derive calibration curve

 

2/5                Titrimetric Methods of Analysis

  • the principles of titration (definitions of terms)
  • volumetric calculations

 

2/7                7: Aqueous Solution Chemistry

  • chemical equilibria
  • solubility product
  • common-ion effect
  • acid-base dissociation constants

 

2/14              Effects of Electrolytes on Ionic Equilibria

  • thermodynamic and concentration based equilibrium constants
  • ionic strength (calculations)
  • salt effect
  • activity and activity coefficient (Debye-Huckel equation)

 

2/20              Application of Equilibrium Calculations to Complex Systems

  • steps used for solving complex equilibrium problems
  • calculation of solubility using mass balance, charge balance and equilibrium constants
  • separation of ions by precipitation

 

2/21              EXAMINATION 1

 

2/26              Theory of Neutralization Titration

  • how an indicator work
  • calculations of titration curves for strong acids and strong bases and vice versa
  • definition of buffers, their preparation and basic calculations (pH, volumes)
  • titration curves for weak acids with strong bases or weak bases with strong acids

 

2/28 and 3/5 Titration Curves for Complex Acid/Base Systems

  • titration curves for mixtures of strong and weak acids (strong and weak bases)
  • buffers based on polyfunctional species
  • titration curves for polyfunctional acids with understanding of the mechanism of the processes in each pH range

 

3/7                Application of Neutralization Titration

  • standards and standardization
  • carbonates and carbonate mixtures

 

3/12              Precipitation Titrimetry;: Complex Formation Titration

  • titration curves in precipitation titration (for individual ions and mixtures)
  • definition of terms in complex formation titration
  • form of EDTA in solution and their properties
  • calculations of the metal concentration based on EDTA titration

 

3/14              EXAMINATION 2

 

3/19              Introduction to Electrochemistry

  • redox reactions (balance, oxidant, reductant)
  • schematic representation of the electrochemical cell
  • electrode potentials (standard electrode potential)
  • electrolytic and galvanic cells
  • Nerst equation

 

3/21              Application of Standard Electrode Potential

  • thermodynamic potential of the cell and its determination
  • calculations of redox equilibrium constants
  • redox titration curves and equilibrium point potential
  • K constant calculations

3/26              Application of Oxidation/Reduction Titration

  • standard oxidants and reductants
  • their applications
  • calculation based on redox reactions

 

3/28              Potentiometry

  • reference electrodes
  • indicator electrodes
  • diagram of glass/calomel cell for the measurement of pH and definition of all potential playing role in the system
  • the principle of working of glass membrane electrode
  • standard addition method for calculation of ion concentration based on the cell potential
  • potentiometric titration

 

4/9                Other electroanalyical methods

  • sources of polarization
  • potential selectivity in electrolytic methods
  • coulometric methods for calculation of the amount of the analyte
  • comparison of coulometric and conventional titrations
  • volammograms, id, E1/2
  • dependence of limiting current on concentration
  • calculation of the amount of analyte based on the diffusion current

 

4/16              EXAMINATION 3

 

4/18              Introduction to Spectrochemical Methods

  • properties of electromagnetic radiation
  • electromagnetic spectrum
  • mechanism of absorption of radiation (atoms and molecules)
  • transmittance and absorbance
  • Beer Law

 

4/23              Molecular Absorption Spectroscopy

  • mechanism of absorption by organic and inorganic molecules
  • charge transfer absorption
  • characteristics of spectrophotometric methods
  • standards addition methods to calculate the concentration of analyte
  • principles of photometric titration

 

4/25              Other spectroscopic methods

  • IR spectroscopy
  • calculation of concentration of components of the mixture based on the absorption of radiation
  • preparation of samples for measurement
  • function of flame
  • differences between AAS and AFS
  • sources of interferences and how to avoid them

 

4/30              EXAMINATION 4

 

5/2                Analytical separations

  • Filtration
  • Distillation
  • Ion exchange

 

5/7                An Introduction to Chromatographic Methods

  • elution in chromatography
  • how to increase separation
  • partition ratio, capacity factor
  • column efficiency: N, H
  • column resolution

 

5/9                Gas-Liquid Chromatography

  • main parts of GC
  • FIT and TCD
  • properties of solid support
  • types of columns

 

5/14              33: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  • main parts of LC
  • application of liquid chromatography
  • normal and reverse phase chromatography
  • ion chromatography
  • advantages of SFC over HPLC and GC
  • comparison of GC and HPLC

 

5/16              Summary of Analytical Methods

  • criteria for choosing an analytical method
  • steps in sample preparation
  • water in solids
  • methods used for the decomposition of samples

 

FINAL-covers all material

 

Academic Integrity

The university has a published policy on academic integrity that may be found at

http://www1.ccny.cuny.edu/current/integrity.cfm

 

Attendance Policy

Students are expected to attend every class session of each course in which they are enrolled and to be on time. An instructor has the right to drop a student from a course for excessive absence. Students are advised to determine the instructor’s policy at the first class session. They should note that an instructor may treat lateness as equivalent to absence. (No distinction is made between excused and unexcused absences.) Each instructor retains the right to establish his or her own policy, but students should be guided by the following general College policy: In courses designated as clinical, performance, laboratory or field work courses, the limit on absences is established by the individual instructor. For all other courses, the number of hours absent may not exceed twice the number of contact hours the course meets per week. When a student is dropped for excessive absence, the Registrar will enter the grade of WU.

 

Courtesy Policy

Eating, drinking, or use of unauthorized hand held electronic equipment is not allowed in the classroom.