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Marco Castaldi

Faculty and Staff Profiles

Marco J. Castaldi

Associate Professor


Additional Departments/Affiliated Programs::

Steinman Hall, 307
Personal Website:

Marco Castaldi was born in New York City and received his B.S. ChE (Magna cum Laude) from Manhattan College.  His Ph.D. is in Chemical Engineering from UCLA and he has minors in Advanced Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics. Professor Castaldi has approximately 60 peer-reviewed research articles, 40 peer-reviewed conference papers, 3 book chapters and 11 patents in the fields of catalysis, combustion and gasification.  Some of his research findings have been covered by The New York Times, The Observer, CNN, and other trade publications.  Prior to his academic career Professor Castaldi worked as Manager of Fuel Processor Component Development for Precision Combustion Inc. in New Haven, CT overseeing projects totaling $5 MM.    Professional awards include:

2016                     Fulbright Global Award

2015                     National Academies’ Intelligence Science & Technology Expert Group

2014                     National Research Council, Panel Member Appointment

2012                     Fellow, National Academy of Engineering Frontiers of Eng. Ed.

2010                     ACS Environmental Division Best Paper Presentation

2009                     National Science Foundation CAREER Award

2009                     International Precious Metal Institute Student Advisor Award

2005                     ASME, Gas Turbine Award

2004                     ASME, Best Applications Paper Award

2002                     Manhattan College, Top 10 Engineering Professors

1992                     UCLA Center for Clean Technology, Arco Fellowship

1991-1992            American Cyanamid Scholarship



Ph.D.Chemical Engineering, 1997, University of California, Los Angeles; Advisor: Selim M. Senkan

M.S.Chemical Engineering, 1994, University of California, Los Angeles; Advisor: Selim M. Senkan

B.S.Chemical Engineering, Magna Cum Laude, 1992, Manhattan College

Research Interests

Combustion, Gasification, and Catalytic Reaction Engineering. Waste to Energy.


1. Butterman, H. C.; Castaldi, M. J.; Gelix, F.; Borrut, D.; Nicol, F.; Lefebvre, B., Biomass and RDF Gasification Using Ballistic Heating TGA Analysis. Waste and Biomass Valorization 2014, 5 (4), 607-623.

2. Prabowo, B.; Umeki, K.; Yan, M.; Nakamura, M. R.; Castaldi, M. J.; Yoshikawa, K., CO 2–steam mixture for direct and indirect gasification of rice straw in a downdraft gasifier: laboratory-scale experiments and performance prediction. Applied Energy 2014, 113, 670-679;

3. Lusardi, M. R.; Kohn, M.; Themelis, N. J.; Castaldi, M. J., Technical assessment of the CLEERGAS moving grate-based process for energy generation from municipal solid waste. Waste Management & Research 2014, 0734242X14543813;

4. Kohn, M. P.; Castaldi, M. J.; Farrauto, R. J., Biogas reforming for syngas production: The effect of methyl chloride. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2014, 144, 353-361;

5. Klinghoffer, N. B.; Castaldi, M. J., Gasification and Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). ChemInform 2014, 45 (15);

6. Frank, A.; Castaldi, M. J., CFD analysis of municipal solid waste combustion using detailed chemical kinetic modelling. Waste Management & Research 2014, 32 (8), 745-754;

7. Fitzgerald, G. C.; Castaldi, M. J.; Schicks, J. M., Methane Hydrate Formation and Thermal Based Dissociation Behavior in Silica Glass Bead Porous Media. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2014, 53 (16), 6840-6854;

8. Ciuta, S.; Patuzzi, F.; Baratieri, M.; Castaldi, M. J., Biomass energy behavior study during pyrolysis process by intraparticle gas sampling. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2014, 108, 316-322;

9. Castaldi, M. J., Perspectives on Sustainable Waste Management. Annual review of chemical and biomolecular engineering 2014, 5, 547-562.

10.       Duyar, M.S., Farrauto, R.J., Castaldi, M.J., Yegulalp, T.M., In-Situ CO2 Capture Using CaO/-Al2O3 Washcoated Monoliths for Sorption Enhanced Water Gas Shift Reaction Ind. & Eng. Chem. Res 2013,

11.       Kwon, E.E., Jeon, E.C., Castaldi M.J., Effect of carbon dioxide on the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic biomass, Environ. Sci. Technol, 2013, 47 (18), 10541-10547

12.       Fitzgerald, G.C., Castaldi, M.J., Thermal Stimulation Based Methane Production from Hydrate Bearing Quartz Sediment, Ind. & Eng. Chem. Res, 2013, 52 (19), 6571-6581

13.       Mohammadi, P., Tabatabaei, M., Nikbakht,A.M., Farhadi, K., Castaldi M.J., Simultaneous Energy Recovery from Waste Polymers in Biodiesel and Improving Fuel Properties,  Waste & Bio. Valor., 2013, 4 (1), 105-116

14.       Kwon, E.E., Castaldi M.J., Urban energy mining from municipal solid waste (MSW) via the enhanced thermo–chemical process by carbon dioxide CO2 as a reaction medium, Biores. Tech., 2012, 125, 23-29

15.       Kwon, E.E., Castaldi M.J., Mechanistic understanding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the thermal degradation of tires under various oxygen concentration atmospheres, Env. Sci. Tech., 2012, 46 (23), 12921-12926

16.       Fitzgerald, G.C., Castaldi, M.J., Zhou, Y., Large scale reactor details and results for the formation and decomposition of methane hydrates via thermal stimulation dissociation J. Petr. Sci. Eng., 2012, 94, 19-27

17.       Klinghoffer, N.B., Castaldi, M.J., Nzihou A., Catalyst properties and catalytic performance of char from biomass gasification, Ind. & Eng. Chem. Res., 2012, 51 (40), 13113-13122

18.       Kwon, E.E., Yi, H., Castaldi M.J., Utilizing carbon dioxide as a reaction medium to mitigate production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the thermal decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber, Env. Sci. Tech. 2012, 46 (19), 10752-10757

19.       Butterman, H.C.; Castaldi, M.J., Experimental Investigation of Lignin Decomposition and Char Structure During CO2 and H2O/N2 Gasification; Waste Bio. Valor. 2011, 3 (1), 49-60

20.       Leylegian, J., Chinitz, W., Benel,G., Castaldi, M.J., Investigation of Short Contact Time Reactors for Regeneratively Cooled Hypersonic Vehicles; J. Prop. Power, 2011, 28 (2), 412-422

21.       Simson, A., Farrauto, R., Castaldi, M.J., Steam reforming of ethanol/gasoline mixtures: Deactivation, regeneration and stable performance; App. Catal. B: Environ, 2011 106 (3-4), pp. 295-303.

22.       Walker, M.E., Abbasian, J., Chmielewski, D.J., Castaldi, M.J.; Dry gasification oxy-combustion power cycle; Energy and Fuels. 2011 25(5): 2258-2266

23.       Klinghoffer, N.B., Barrai, F., Castaldi, M.J.; Autothermal reforming of JP8 on a Pt/Rh catalyst: Catalyst durability studies and effects of sulfur; J. Power Source. 2011, 196(15): 6374-6381

24.       Gruene, P; Belova, A.G; Yegulalp, T.M; Farrauto, R.J; Castaldi, M.J, Dispersed Calcium Oxide as a Reversible and Efficient CO2-Sorbent  at  Intermediate Temperatures, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2011, 50(7): 4042-4049

25.       Kohn, M; Lee, J; Basinger, M.L; Castaldi, M.J., Performance of an Internal Combustion Engine Operating on Landfill Gas and the Effect of Syngas Addition, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2011, 50 (6): 3570–3579

26.       Butterman, H.C.; Castaldi, M.J., Biomass to Fuels: Impact of Reaction Medium and Heating Rate, Env. Eng. Sci., 2010, 27(7): 539-555

27.       Barrai, F., Castaldi, M.J., “Experimental investigation of a JP8 Fuel Processor: ATR and CO-cleanup train.” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 49 (4), 2010, 1577–1587

28.       Castaldi, M.J., and Themelis, N.J., The Case for Increasing the Global Capacity for Waste to Energy (WTE)” Waste Biomass Valor, 1 (1), 2010, pp. 91-105.

29.       Kohn, M., Castaldi M.J., and Farrauto, R.J., “Auto-thermal and Dry Reforming of landfill gas over a Rh/γAl2O3 monolith catalyst.” App. Catal. B: Environ, (94), 2010, 125-133.

30.       Nakamura, M.R., Castaldi, M.J., Themelis, N.J., “Stochastic and physical modeling of motion of municipal solid waste (MSW) particles on a waste-to-energy (WTE) moving grate.” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 49, (6), 2010, 984-992.

31.       Butterman, H. C.; Castaldi, M.J, “CO2 as a Carbon Neutral Fuel Source via Enhanced Biomass Gasification.” Environ. Sci. Technol., 2009, 43 (23), pp 9030–9037.

32.       Butterman, H. C.; Castaldi, M. J., “Syngas Production via CO2 Enhanced Gasification of Biomass Fuels”. Environmental Engineering Science 2009, 26, (4), 703-713

33.       Zhou, Y.; Castaldi, M.J.; Yegulalp, T.M., “Experimental investigation of methane gas production from methane hydrate": Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2009, 48, 3142–3149

34.       Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Griffin, Kevin L.; Blazier, John C.; Craig, Elizabeth C.; Gilbert, Dominique S.; Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Anderson, O. Roger; Castaldi, Marco J.; Beaumont, Larry.  The growth response of Alternanthera philoxeroides in a simulated post-combustion emission with ultrahigh [CO2] and acidic pollutants. Environmental Pollution, 2009,  157(7),  2118-2125.

35.       Eichelbaum, M, Farrauto, R.J. Castaldi, M.J., “The Impact of Urea on the Performance of Fe-Exchanged Beta Zeolites for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx I. Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of Urea over Zeolite Catalysts” – Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2010, (97), 90-97

36.       Eichelbaum, M, Siemerb, A.B., Farrauto, R.J. Castaldi, M.J., “The Impact of Urea on the Performance of Fe-Beta Zeolites for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx II. Catalytic Studies’ – Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2010, (97), 98-107

37.       Castaldi, M.J; Zhou, Y.; Yegulalp, T.M.; “Large scale reactor results for the formation and decomposition of methane hydrates”, 2008, in-review - J. Pet. Sci. Eng

38.       Nakamura, M.; Castaldi, M.J.; Themelis, N.J.; “A 2-dimensional stochastic model for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) particle mixing within a waste-to-energy (WTE) combustion bed” 2008, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, in review

39.       Kwon, Eilhann; Castaldi, Marco J..  Fundamental Understanding of the Thermal Degradation Mechanisms of Waste Tires and Their Air Pollutant Generation in a N2 Atmosphere.  Environ. Sci. Technol.  2009,  43(15),  5996-6002.

40.       Simson, A., Waterman, E., Farrauto, R.J., Castaldi, M.J. “Kinetic and process study for ethanol reforming using a Rh/Pt washcoated monolith catalyst.” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 89, (1-2), 2009, 58-64

41.       McLaughlin, N. M., and Castaldi, M.J, (2008) In-Situ Measurement Techniques in Catalysis for Mechanism Development, Chapter in Catalysis Series, Royal Society of Chemistry. RSC Publishing,  Ed. Spivey, J.J.

42.       Dorazio, L., Ruettinger, W., Castaldi, M.J, Farrauto, B.F., “Deactivation, Regeneration, and Stable Performance of a Platinum-Molybdenum-Rhenium Water Gas Shift Catalyst for on-Site Hydrogen Generation,” Topics in Catalysis, 2008, 51 (1-4), pp. 68-75.

43.       Zeman, F.; Castaldi, M., An investigation of synthetic fuel production via chemical looping. Environmental Science & Technology, 2008, 42, (8), 2723-2727.

44.       Kwon, E.; Castaldi, M.J, “Investigation of Mechanisms of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Initiated from the Thermal Degradation of Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) in N2 Atmosphere”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42, (6), 2175-2180.

45.       Kaufman, S.; Krishnan, N.; Kwon, E.; Castaldi, M.; Themelis, N.; Rechberger, H., Examination of the Fate of Carbon in Waste Management Systems through Statistical Entropy and Life Cycle Analysis. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, (22), 8558-8563

46.       Castaldi, M.J; Kwon, E.; Weiss, B., Beneficial Use of Waste Tires: An Integrated Gasification and Combustion Process Design via Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) and Poly-Isoprene (IR). Environ. Eng. Sci. 2007, 24, (8), 1160-1178. (Invited Paper)

47.       Castaldi, M.J, (2007), "Removal of Trace Contaminants from Fuel Processing Reformate: Preferential Oxidation (Prox)." Chapter for Hydrogen and Syngas, John Wiley.  Eds. Subramani,V., Song, C., Liu, K.

48.       Barrai, F.; Jackson, T.; Whitmore, N.; Castaldi, M.J, “The role of carbon deposition on precious metal catalyst activity during dry reforming of biogas.” Catalysis Today 2007, 129, (3-4), 391-396.

49.       Butterman, H. C.; Castaldi, M.J, “Influence of CO2 Injection on Biomass Gasification.” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2007, 46, (26), 8875-8886.

50.       Castaldi, M.J; Barrai, F., “An investigation into water and thermal balance for a liquid fueled fuel processor.” Catalysis Today 2007, 129, (3-4), 397-406.

51.       Castaldi, M.J; Zhou, Y.; Yegulalp, T. M., Down-hole combustion method for gas production from methane hydrates. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 2007, 56, (1-3), 176-185, (Invited Paper).

52.       Castaldi, M.J; Dooher, J. P., Investigation into a catalytically controlled reaction gasifier (CCRG) for coal to hydrogen. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2007, 32, (17), 4170-4179.

53.       Kwon, E.; Castaldi, M.J, “An Investigation into the Mechanisms for Styrene-Butadiene Copolymer (SBR) Conversion in Combustion and Gasification Environments.” International Journal of Green Energy 2007, 4, 45-63.

54.       Dorazio, L. D. and Castaldi, M.J, “Autothermal reforming of tetradecane (C14H30): A mechanistic approach” Catalysis Today, 2008, 136 (3-4), 273-280.

55.       Lee, S.-H.; Themelis, N. J.; Castaldi, M. J., High-temperature corrosion in waste-to-energy boilers. J. Therm. Spray Technol. 2007, 16, (1), 104-110.

56.       Mohan, M. A.; May, N.; Assaf-Anid, N. M.; Castaldi, M.J, “Biomass as a sustainable energy source: an illustration of ChE thermodynamic concepts.” Chemical Engineering Education 2006, 40, (4), 259-267.

57.       Schiff, D. M.; Castaldi, M.J, “An affordable diesel exhaust particulate matter removal unit for developing countries.” Chemical Engineering Education 2006, in revision.

58.       Weiss, B.; Castaldi, M. J., “A tire gasification senior design project that integrates laboratory experiments and computer simulation.” Chemical Engineering Education 2006, 40, (3), 203-210.

59.       Smith, L. L.; Karim, H.; Castaldi, M.J; Etemad, S.; Pfefferle, W. C., “Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn combustion for fuel-flexible operation with ultra low emissions.” Catalysis Today 2006, 117, (4), 438-446.

60.       Smith, L. L.; Karim, H.; Castaldi, M. J.; Etemad, S.; Pfefferle, W. C.; Khanna, V.; Smith, K. O., Rich-Catalytic Lean-Burn Combustion for Low-Single-Digit NOx Gas Turbines. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 2005, 127, (1), 27-35. (Best Applications Paper Award)

61.       Roychoudhury, S.; Castaldi, M.; Lyubovsky, M.; LaPierre, R.; Ahmed, S., “Microlith catalytic reactors for reforming iso-octane-based fuels into hydrogen.” Journal of Power Sources 2005, 152, 75-86.

62.       Castaldi, M.J; LaPierre, R.; Lyubovski, M.; Pfefferle, W.; Roychoudhury, S., “Effect of water on performance and sizing of fuel-processing reactors.” Catalysis Today 2005, 99, (3-4), 339-346.

63.       Castaldi, M.J; Dorazio, L.; Assaf-Anid, N., “Relating abstract chemical thermodynamic concepts to real-world problems.” Chemical Engineering Education 2004, 38, (4), 268-271.

64.       Castaldi, M. J., Senkan, S.M., “Combustion.” In Ullman's Encyclopedia, 6th Ed, Ullman's, Ed. Ullmans: 2004.


Publications as Industrial Author

1. Smith, L. L., Karim, Hasan, Castaldi, Marco J., Etemad, S., Pfefferle, W. C., Khanna, V. K., Smith, K.O., “Rich-Catalytic Lean-Burn Combustion for Low-Single-Digit NOx Gas Turbines.” ASME Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea & Air; 2003.

2. Lyubovsky, M.; Smith, L. L.; Castaldi, M.; Karim, H.; Nentwick, B.; Etemad, S.; LaPierre, R.; Pfefferle, W. C., “Catalytic combustion over platinum group catalysts: fuel-lean versus fuel-rich operation.” Catalysis Today 2003, 83, (1-4), 71-84.

3. Castaldi, M. J., Roychoudhury, S., Boorse, R.S., Karim, H., LaPierre, R., Pfefferle, W.C. “Compact, Lightweight Preferential CO Oxidation (PROX) Reactor Development and Design for PEM Automotive Fuel Cell Applications.”, Fuel Processing Session I, Proceedings from  the 2003 Spring National Meeting and Process Industries Exposition, New Orleans, LA, March 30 - April 3, 2003; AIChE, Ed.

4. Castaldi, M. J., Lyubovsky. M., LaPierre, R., Pfefferle, W.C., and Roychoudhury, S., “Performance of Microlith Based Catalytic Reactors for an Isooctane Reforming System.” SAE Technical Paper 2003, (2003-01-1366).

5. Pfefferle, W. C.; Castaldi, M.; Etemad, S.; Karim, H.; Lyubovsky, M.; Roychoudhury, S.; Smith, L., “Catalysts for improved process efficiency.” 223rd ACS National Meeting, Orlando, FL, United States, April 7-11, 2002 2002, CATL-018.

6. Castaldi, M. J., Boorse, Samuel, R., Roychoudhury, S., Menacherry, P., Pfefferle, W.C. “Lightweight, Compact, Ultra-fast Short Contact Time Preferential Oxidation Reactor for Automotive PEM Fuel Cell Applications.”, NSF National Meeting, San Juan, Puerto Rico, January, 2002.


Publications as Doctoral Student

1. Marinov, N. M.; Pitz, W. J.; Westbrook, C. K.; Vincitore, A. M.; Castaldi, M. J.; Senkan, S. M.; Melius, C. F., “Aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a laminar premixed n-butane flame.” Combustion and Flame 1998, 114, (1/2), 192-213.

2. Marinov, N. M.; Castaldi, M. J.; Melius, C. F.; Tsang, W., “Aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed propane flame.” Combustion Science and Technology 1998, 131, (1-6), 295-342.

3. Castaldi, M. J.; Senkan, S. M., “Real-time, ultrasensitive monitoring of air toxics by laser photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 1998, 48, (1), 77-81.

4. Gittins, C. M.; Castaldi, M. J.; Senkan, S. M.; Rohlfing, E. A., “Real-Time Quantitative Analysis of Combustion-Generated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Resonance-Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.” Analytical Chemistry 1997, 69, (3), 286-293.

5. Marinov, N. M.; Pitz, W. J.; Westbrook, C. K.; Castaldi, M. J.; Senkan, S. M., “Modeling of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in premixed methane and ethane flames.” Combustion Science and Technology 1996, 116-117, (1-6), 211-287.

6. Castaldi, M. J.; Senkan, S. M., “PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) formation in the premixed flame of ethane.” Combustion Science and Technology 1996, 116-117, (1-6), 167-181.

7. Castaldi, M. J.; Marinov, N. M.; Melius, C. F.; Huang, J.; Senkan, S. M.; Pitz, W. J.; Westbrook, C. K., “Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame.” Symposium (International) on Combustion, [Proceedings] 1996, 26th, (Vol. 1), 693-702.

8. Castaldi, M. J., Senkan, S.M., “Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) in Hydrocarbon Combustion: Comparative New Results from Premixed Flames.” Combustion and Flame, 1996, 107, 141-150.

9. Castaldi, M. J., Vincitore, A.M., Senkan, S.M., “Micro-Structures of Premixed Hydrocarbon Flames: Methane.” Combust. Sci. and Tech 1995, 107, 1-19.)



1. Smith, L. L.; Etemad, S.; Ulkarim, H.; Castaldi, M. J.; Pfefferle, W. C. “Method and apparatus for a catalytic firebox reactor.” 6,174,159, 2001.

2. Pfefferle, W. C.; Smith, L. L.; Etemad, S.; Castaldi, M. J.; Ul Karim, M. H. “Method and apparatus for a fuel-rich catalytic reactor.” 6,394,791, 2002.

3. Smith, L.; Etemad, S.; Castaldi, M.; Karim, H. M. U.; Pfefferle, W. C. “Conduit positioner for a catalyst system for reacting fuel/oxidant mixtures.” Application #2002092212. 2003

4. Smith, L. L.; Etemad, S.; Karim, H. U.; Castaldi, M. “Baffle plate for single flow channel reactors.” Application #2003053939, 2003.

5. Castaldi, M. J. “Method for Reduced Methanation.” 6,746,657, 2004.

6. Castaldi, M. J.; Lyubovsky, M.; Roychoudhury, S. “Method for Improved Selectivity.” 7,504,047, 2007.

7. Smith, L. L.; Etemad, S.; Castaldi, M. J.; Karim, M. H. U.; Pfefferle, W. C. “Method for dual-fuel operation of a fuel-rich catalytic reactor.” 6,752,623, 2004.

8. Castaldi, M. J.; Chandran, K. Methods and systems for generating hydrogen from a biomass. Applications #2007-US700332007, 2007.

9. Castaldi, Marco J.; Chandran, Kartik.  Improved methane generation from biomass.    PCT Int. Appl.  (2008).

10.       Castaldi, M. J.; Dooher, J.; Lackner, K. S. Biomass and coal gasification process with combustion stage to provide a primary heat source. Application #2007123776, 2007.

11.       Zeman, Frank S.; Castaldi, Marco J..  Synthesis gas manufacturing by combined reforming and gasification with metal oxides.    #8,926,717, 2015

12.       Castaldi, M.J., Farrauto, R.J., Yegulalp, T.M., “Methods and systems for generating hydrogen and separating carbon dioxide” 8,926,942, 2015


Media Coverage

  1. History Channel: “Engineering Disasters” – Expert commentary on combustion and explosions, 2014
  2. Nerd Night: Waste to Energy 101: - Portland OR, 2013, Ongoing Public Series on “Trash Talk – What your waste can do for you”
  3. Columbia Researchers Explore New Process to Create Greener Fuels - According to a new study, peanut shells and other materials, such as tree bark and grass, can be turned from biomass—a renewable energy derived from a recently living source—into fuel. Margaux Groux, Columbia Spectator, December 11, 2009
  4. «Sauberer» Biosprit dank CO2 - Es wirkt wie das Perpetuum Mobile des Klimaschutzes: Die Herstellung von Biotreibstoff mit Hilfe von CO2. Neues Verfahren, December 4, 2009
  5. New Technology Cleans Up Coal with CO2 - The world has taken a step closer to "clean coal," thanks to new technology that actually uses CO2 to make power generation more efficient. Matt Ford, CNN, November 30, 2009
  6. Study: Carbon Dioxide in Biomass Gasification Increases Efficiency - When carbon dioxide is used in biomass gasification, it increases the conversion efficiency and offers a solution for processing carbon dioxide on a global scale, according to a recent study by Columbia University researchers. Lisa Gibson, Biomass Magazine, November 18, 2009
  7. Scientists Find Key to Creating Clean Fuel from Coal and Waste - 'Gasification' process enhanced to save millions of tonnes of carbon and provide energy. Alok Jha, The Observer, U.K. November 15, 2009
  8. Researchers Discover Use for Carbon Dioxide in Conversion of Biomass Into Biofuel - Researchers at Columbia University have successfully discovered a beneficial use for carbon dioxide in the conversion of organic materials, such as grass and bark, into fuel. Columbia University November 11, 2009
  9. Scientists Try Tapping 'Ice That Burns' - Researchers may have found a way to extract large amounts of natural gas from methane hydrates -- ice-like structures that might contain more energy than all the world's coal, oil and conventional natural gas combined. Katie Howell, The New York Times April 6, 2009


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