Patents

AWARDED PATENTS

To get any patents use the link given below and enter the patent number

 https://www.pat2pdf.org/

2019

  1. Resonant Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscope, Robert. R Alfano, Lingyan Shi, #10,281,331, May 7, 2019

  2. Near Infrared Photonic Prostatoscopy Analyser, Robert R. Alfano, Wubao Wang, Yang Pu, Yury Budansky, Laura Sordillo, Guichen Tang, Jamestham, #10,362,983 B2, July 30, 2019

  3. Rain Induced by Supercontinuum Laser Beams, Robert R. Alfano, #10,375900 B2, Aug 13,2019

  4. OAM Microscope for edge enhancement of Biomedical and condensed matter samples and objects, Robert Alfano, Richard Gozali, Ethan Bendan, Thien-An Nguyen, Sandra Mamani, #10,401,294 B2, Sep 3, 2019

  5. Method of Deep Tissue Imaging Using Multi-Photonic Excitation of a Fluorophore, Robert Alfano, Yang Pu, Lingyan Shi, Sebastiao Pratavieira. #10,420,471 B2, Sep 24, 2019

  6. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Analyser Instrument for Biomolecules in tissues and cells, Robert Alfano, Cheng-Hui Liu, #10,426,349 B2 Oct 1, 2019

  7. Continuous Diode Laser Stimulated Raman Gain/Loss Vibratonal Microscope, Robert Alfano, Lingyan Shi, Yury Budansky, #10433731 B2, Oct 8, 2019

2018

  1. Deep optical imaging of tissue with less scattering in the second, third and fourth NIR spectral windows using supercontinuum and other laser coherent light sources, R. R. Alfano, L. Sordillo, Yang Pu, Lingyan Shi, #10,123,705 B2, November 13, 2018.

  2. All optical mode divison demultipexing, Robert R Alfano, G. Milione, D. A. Nolan, #10027,416 B2, july 17,2018

2017

  1. Method of using supercontinuum light for medical and biological applications, R. R. Alfano, # 9,561,077 B2, Feb. 7, 2017.

  2. Compact electromagnetic-radiation antenna, R. R. Alfano, M. Yu. Sharonov, #9,620,858 B2, Apr. 11, 2017.

  3. Spatial frequency spectrometer for and method of detection of spatial structures in materials, R. R. Alfano, Y. Pu, #9,804,088 B2, Oct. 31, 2017.

2016

  1. Method and apparatus for detecting degree of spoilage of food, R. R. Alfano, Yang Pu, Wubao Wang, # 9,322,769   B2, Apr. 26, 2016.

  2. Method and apparatus for producing supercontinuum light for medical and biological applications, R. R. Alfano, # 9,414,887 B2, Aug. 16 2016.

2015

  1. Superimposing optical transmission modes, Daniel Nolan, Giovanni Miiione, Robert Alfano, #8,965,217 B2, Feb. 24, 2015.

  2. Method for Picosecond and Femtosecond Laser Tissue Welding, R. R. Alfano, V. Sriramoju, #8,974,444 B2, Mar. 10, 2015.

2013

  1. P-Element Doped Laser Medium Apparatus and Method, R. R. Alfano, A. Bykov, M. Sharonov, #8,385,375 B2, Feb. 26, 2013.

  2. Changing skin-color perception using quantum and optical principles in cosmetic preparations, R. R. Alfano, X. Ni. M. Zevallos, #8,518,445 B2, Aug. 27, 2013.

2012

  1. +Cylindrical Polarization beams, R. R. Alfano, X. Chen, J. Koh, M.-J. Li, D. Aloysius Nolan, H. Sztul, #8,111,957 B2, February 2, 2012

2011

  1. Phosphorescence and Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Detection of Cancer and Pre-Cancer from Normal/Benign Regions, R. R. Alfano, A. Alimova, A. Katz, #7,986,989 B2, July 26, 2011.

  2. Micro-Scale Compact Device for In Vivo Medical Diagnosis Combining Optical Imaging and Point Fluorescence Spectroscopy, R. R. Alfano, A. Katz, S. Alfano #8,082,024 B2, Dec. 20, 2011.

2010

  1. Detecting human cancer through spectral optical imaging using key water absorption wavelengths, Robert Alfano, Ali Jamal, Wubao Wang, Manuel Zevallos, # 7,706,862, April 27, 2010.

  2. Optical Tomography using Independent Component Analysis for Detection and Localization of Targets in Turbid Media”, R. R. Alfano, M. Xu, M. Alrubaiee, S. Gayen. #7,826,878 B2, Novemebr 2, 2010.

2009

  1. Imaging Systems and Methods to Improve Backscattering Imaging Using Circular Polarization Memory, R. R. Alfano, X. Ni, #7,515,265 B2, Apr. 7 2009.

2008

  1. Cr3+-Doped Laser Materials and Lasers and Methods of Making and Using, R. R. Alfano, A. Bykov, V. Petricevic, M. Sharonov, #7,460,574 B2, Dec. 2, 2008.

  2. Tetravalent Chromium Doped Laser Materials and NIR Tunable Lasers, R. R. Alfano, V. Petricevic, A. Bykov, #7,440,480 B2, Oct. 21, 2008.

  3. Cr4+-Doped Mixed Alloy Laser Materials and Lasers and Methods Using the Materials, R. R. Alfano, V. Petricevic, Alexey Bykov, #7,359,415 B1, Apr. 15, 2008.

2007

  1. Methods and Systems for Detection of Ice Formation on Surfaces, R. R. Alfano, W. Wang, H. Sztul, Y. Budansky, #7,312,713 B2, December 25, 2007.

  2. Methods and Apparatus for Producing a Multiple Optical Channel Source from a Supercontinuum Generator for WDM Communication, R. R. Alfano, I. Zeylikovich, #7,245,805, July 17, 2007.

  3. Hybrid-dual-Fourier Tomographic Algorithm for a Fast Three-Dimensional Optical Image Reconstruction in Turbid Media, R. R. Alfano, W. Cai, #7,218,959, May 15, 2007.

  4. Stokes Shift Emission Spectroscopy for Detection of Disease and Physiological State of Specimen, R. R. Alfano, Y. Yang, #7,192,783, March 20, 2007.

2006

  1. Systems and Methods for Non-Destructively Detecting Material Abnormalities Beneath a Coated Surface, R. R. Alfano, B. Yu, #7,145,148 B2, December 5, 2006.

  2. Photodetectors and Optically Pumped Emitters based on III-Nitride Multiple-Quantum-Well Structures, R. R. Alfano, S. Zhang, and W. Wang, #7,119,359 B2, Oct. 10, 2006.

  3. Methods of Improving Line of Sight Wireless Optical Communication Through Adverse Environmental Conditions, R. R. Alfano, J. P. Ying, S. K. Gayen, W. Cai, #7,106,972 B2, September 12, 2006.

  4. Systems and Methods for Non-Destructively Detecting Material Abnormalities Beneath a Coated Surface, R. R. Alfano, I. Zeylikovich, W. Wang, J. Ali, V. Benischek, Y. Budansky, #7,038,208 B2, May 2, 2006.

  5. Gelatin Based on Power-Gel as Solders for Cr4+ Laser Tissue Welding and Sealing of Lung Air Leak and Fistulas in Organs, R. R. Alfano, J. Tang, J. M. Evans, P. P. Ho, #7,033,348 B2, Apr. 25, 2006.

2005

  1. Systems and Methods for Non-Destructively Detecting Material Abnormalities Beneath a Coated Surface, R. R. Alfano, I. Zeylikovich, W. Wang, J. Ali, V. Benischek, Y. Budansky, #6,853,926, February 8, 2005.

2004

  1. System and Method for Performing Selected Optical Measurements Utilizing a Position Changeable Aperture, I. Zeylikovich, R. R. Alfano, #6,762,839 B2, July 13, 2004.

2003

  1. Method and System for Examining Biological Materials using Low Power CW Excitation Raman Spectroscopy, R. R. Alfano, W. B. Wang, #6,560,478 B1, May 6, 2003.

  2. Spectral Polarizing Tomographic Dermatoscope, R. R. Alfano, Y. Budansky, J. Luo, #6,587,711 B1, July 1, 2003.

  3. Technique for Examining Biological Materials using Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk Function, R. R. Alfano, Y. Yang, #6,615,068 B1, September 2, 2003.

  4. System and Method of  Fluorescence Spectroscopic Imaging for Characterization and Monitoring of Tissue Damage, R. R. Alfano, J. Tang, P. P. Ho, #6,631,289 B2, October 7, 2003.

  5. Method and Apparatus for Examining a Tissue Using the Spectral Wing Emission Therefrom Induced by Visible to Infrared Photoexcitation, R. R. Alfano, S. G. Demos, G. Zhang, #6,665,556 B1, December 16, 2003.

  6. Spectroscopic and Time-resolved Optical Methods and Apparatus for Imaging Objects in Turbid Media, R. R. Alfano, S. K. Gayen, M. E. Zevallos, #6,665,557 B1, December 16, 2003.

2002

  1. Photon-Mediated Introduction of Biological Materials into Cells and/or Cellular Components, Robert R. Alfano, Cheng-Hui Liu, #6,346,101 B1, February 12, 2002.

  2. Performing Selected Optical Measurements with Optical Coherence Domain Reflectometry, I. Zeylikovich, R. R. Alfano, #6,437,867 B2, August 20, 2002.

  3. Sub-Surface Imaging under Paints and Coatings using Early Light Spectroscopy, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, #6,495,833 B1, December 17, 2002.

2001

  1. Time-resolved optical backscattering tomographic image reconstruction in scattering turbid media, R. R. Alfano, Wei Cai, Melvin Lax, #6,205,353 B1, March 20, 2001.

  2. Non-linear optical tomography of turbid media, Robert R. Alfano, Yici Guo, Feng Liu, Ping Pei Ho, #6,208,886 B1, March 27, 2001.

  3. Microscope imaging inside highly scattering media, Robert R. Alfano, Gordon E. Anderson, Feng Liu, #6,215,587 B1, April 10, 2001.

  4. Remote-Controllable, Micro-Scale Device for use in In Vivo Medical Diagnosis and/or Treatment, Robert R. Alfano, Scott Alfano, Quan-Zhen Wang, Ping Pei Ho, #6,240,312, May 29, 2001.

  5. Apparatus for Enhancing the Visibility of a Luminous Object inside Tissue and Methods for Same, Robert R. Alfano, Stavros G. Demos, Wubao Wang, Jamal Ali, #6,280,386 B1, Aug. 28, 2001.

2000

  1. Baseball training bat with colored transferable bands, Robert R. Alfano, Scott A. Alfano, #6,045,465, April 4, 2000.

  2. Photonic paper product dispenser, Robert R. Alfano, Yury Budansky, jing Cheng Luo, #6,069,354, May 30, 2000.

  3. Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of cancerous and precancerous cells in a smear using native fluorescence spectroscopy, Robert R. Alfano, Singaravelu Ganesan, and Yury Budansky, #6,080,584, June 27, 2000.

  4. Imaging of objects in turbid media based upon the preservation of polarized luminescence emitted from contrast agents, Robert R. Alfano, Stavros G. Demos, Wubao Wang, #6,091,983, July 18, 2000.

  5. Detection of cancer and precancerous conditions in tissues and/or cells using native fluorescence excitation spectroscopy, Robert R. Alfano, Singaravelu Ganesan, Alvin Katz, Yang Yuanlong, #6,091,985, July 18, 2000.

  6. Time-resolved diffusion tomographic 2D and 3D imaging in highly scattering turbid media, Robert R. Alfano, Wei Cai, Swapan K. Gayen, #6,108,576, August 22, 2000.

  7. Method and system for examining biological materials using low power CW excitation Raman spectroscopy, Robert R. Alfano, Wubao Wang, #6,151,522, November 21, 2000.

1999

  1. Imaging of objects based upon the polarization or depolarization of light, Robert R. Alfano, Stavros Demos, #5,929,443, July 27, 1999.

  2. Time-resolved diffusion tomographic 2D and 3D imaging in highly scattering turbid media, Robert R. Alfano, Wei Cai, Feng Liu, Melvin Lax, #5,931,789, August 3, 1999.

  3. System and method for performing selected optical measurements on a sample using a diffraction grating, Iosif Zeylikovich, Robert R. Alfano, #5,943,133, August 24, 1999.

  4. Technique for imaging an object in or behind a scattering medium, R. R. Alfano, K. M. Yoo, S. Ahmed, Z. W. Zang, Feng Liu, #5,949,077, September 7, 1999.

  5. Method and apparatus for in vivo examination of subcutaneous tissues inside an organ of a body using optical spectroscopy, R. R. Alfano, Y. Budansky, #5,983,125, November 9, 1999.

  6. Fiberoptic assembly useful in optical spectroscopy, R. R. Alfano, Stavros Demos, Gang Zhang, #6,006,001, December 21, 1999.

1998

  1. Ultrafast Optical Imaging of objects in or Behind Scattering Media, R. R. Alfano, Feng Liu, Q. Z. Wang, P. Ho, L. M. Wang, X. Liang, #5,710,429, January 20, 1998.

  2. Method for Amplifying Laser Signals and An Amplifier for use in said Method, R. R. Alfano, V. V. Petricevic, P. P. Ho, #5,717,517, February 10, 1998.

  3. Imaging and Characterization of Tissue based upon the Preservation of Polarized Light transmitted therethrough, R. R. Alfano, S. G. Demos, #5,719,399, February 17, 1998.

  4. Method for Detecting Cancerous Tissue using Optical Spectroscopy and Fourier Analysis, R. R. Alfano, A. Katz, Y. Yang, #5,769,081, June 23, 1998.

  5. Method for Detecting Cancerous Tissue using Visible Native Luminescence, R. R. Alfano, M. A. Alfano, #B1 4,930,516, August 4, 1998. (Re-examination Certificate of  #B1 4,930,516).

  6. Optical Imaging of Breast Tissues to enable the Detection therein of Calcification Regions Suggestive of Cancer, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, #5,799,656, September 1, 1998.

  7. Time Resolved Diffusion Tomographic Imaging in Highly Scattering Turbid Media, R. R. Alfano, W. Cai, F. Liu, M. Lax, Bidyut B. Das, #5,813,988, September 29, 1998.

  8. Multiple-Stage Optical Kerr Gate System, Ping-Pei Ho, R. R. Alfano, #5,828,484, October 27, 1998.

  9. Imaging of Objects Based upon the Polarization or Depolarization of Light, R. R. Alfano, S. G. Demos, #5,847,394, December 8, 1998.

  10. Method for Monitoring the Effects of Chemotherapeutic Agents on Neoplasmic Media, R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, S. P. Schantz, #5,849,595, December 15, 1998.

1997

  1. Method and System for Imaging Objects in Turbid Media using Diffusive Fermat Photons, R. R. Alfano, A. Y. Polishchuk, #5,625,458, April 29, 1997.

  2. Apparatus using Optical Deflection, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, Lina Yang, Q. Z. Wang, #5,636,050, June 3, 1997.

  3. Technique for Determining whether a Cell is Malignant as opposed to Non-malignant using Extrinsic Fluorescence Spectroscopy, R. R. Alfano, Cheng H. Liu, Wei L. Sha, Yury Budansky, #5,635,402, June 3, 1997.

  4. 2-Dimensional Imaging of Translucent Objects in Turbid Media, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, #5,644,429, July 1, 1997 (see #5,371,368).

  5. Method and Apparatus for Evaluating the Composition of an Oil Sample, R. R. Alfano, C. H. Liu, #5,656,810, August 12, 1997.

1995

  1. Method and Apparatus for Mapping a Tissue Sample for and Distinguishing Different Regions thereof based on Luminescence Measurements of Cancer-indicative Native Fluorophor, R. R. Alfano, #5,413,108, May 9, 1995.

  2. Terahertz Repetition Rate Optical Computing Systems, and Communication Systems and Logic Elements using Cross-Phase Modulation based Optical Processors, R. R. Alfano, P.-P. Ho, P. Baldeck, #5,463,485, October 31, 1995.

  3. Method for Determining if Tissue is Malignant as opposed to Non-Malignant using Time-resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy, R. R. Alfano, Asima Pradhan, G. C. Tang, L. Wang, Y. Budansky, B. B. Das, #5,467,767, November 21, 1995.

  4. Method and Device for Detecting Biological Molecules and/or Microorganisms within a Desired Area or Space, R. R. Alfano, #5,474,910, December 12, 1995.

1994

  1. Femtosecond Streak Camera, R. R. Alfano, Y. Takiguchi, K. Kinoshita, #5,278,403, January 11, 1994.

  2. Method for Distinguishing between Calcified Atherosclerotic Tissue and Fibrous Atherosclerotic Tissue or Normal Cardiovascular Tissue Using Raman Spectroscopy, R. R. Alfano, C. H. Liu #5,293,872, March 15, 1994.

  3. Protective Device for Selectively Reflecting High-Intensity Light over a Broad Spectral Bandwidth, R. R. Alfano, Kwong M. Yoo, #5,315,437, May 24, 1994.

  4. Method and System for compressing and amplifying Ultrashort Laser Pulses, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, Q. Z. Wang, #5,323,260, June 21, 1994.

  5. Method for determining if Tissue is Malignant as opposed to Non-Malignant using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy, R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, L. Wang, Y. Budansky, B. B. Das, #5,348,018, September 20, 1994.

  6. Noninvasive Method and Apparatus for Characterizing Biological Materials, R. R. Alfano, K. M. Yoo, G. C. Tang, #5,369,496, November 29, 1994.

  7. Ultrafast Optical Imaging of Objects in a Scattering Medium, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, L. Wang, #5,371,368, December 6, 1994.

  8. Terahertz Repetition Rate Optical Computing Systems, and Communication Systems and Logic Elements Using Cross-Phase Modulation Based Optical Processors, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, P. Baldeck, #5,373,381, December 13, 1994.

1993

  1. Multiple-Stage Optical Kerr Gate System, Ping-Pei Ho, R. R. Alfano, #5,227,912, July 13, 1993.

  2. Method for determining if a Tissue is a Malignant Tumor Tissue, a Benign Tumor Tissue, or a Normal Benign Tissue using Raman Spectroscopy, R. R. Alfano, C.-H. Liu, W. S. Glassman, #5,261,410, November 16, 1993.

1992

  1. Method and Apparatus for Creating Transient Optical Elements and Circuits, R. R. Alfano, Yao Li, P. L. Baldeck, #5,126,874, (June 30, 1992).

  2. Ultrafast Digital Optical Signal Processing using a Venn Diagram Based Spatial Encoding Technique, Y. Li, R. Dorsinville, R. R. Alfano, #5,136,530, (August 4, 1992).

  3. Method and Apparatus for Distinguishing Cancerous Tissue from Benign Tumor Tissue, Benign Tissue or Normal Tissue using Native Fluorescence, R. R. Alfano, B. Das, G. Tang, #5,131,398, (July 21, 1992).

  4. Method and Apparatus for improving the Signal to Noise Ratio of an Image formed of an Object hidden in or behind a Semi-opaque Random Media, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, #5,140,463, (August 18, 1992).

  5. Three-dimensional Optical Imaging of Semi-Transparent and Opaque Objects using Ultrashort Light Pulses, a Streak Camera and a Coherent Fiber Bundle, R. R.  Alfano, Ping-Pei Ho, #5,142,372, August 25, 1992.

  6. Terahertz Repetition Rate Optical Computing Systems, Communications Systems, and Logic Elements using Cross-Phase-Modulation Based Optical Processors, R. R. Alfano, P. Ho, P. Baldeck, #5,150,248, September 22, 1992.

1991

  1. Tetravalent Chromium (Cr4+) as a Laser-Active Ion for Tunable Solid-State Lasers, R. R. Alfano, V. Petricevic, #4,987,575 (January 22, 1991).

  2. Trigger Circuit for a Streak Camera Sweep Drive Circuit, R. R. Alfano, R. Garuthara, #5003168 (March 26, 1991). 

  3. Apparatus and Method for Measuring the Time Evolution of Carriers Propagating within Submicron and Micron Electronic Devices, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, #5,034,903 (July 23, 1991).

  4. Method and Apparatus for Detecting Cancerous Tissue using Luminescence Excitation Spectra, R. R. Alfano, #5,042,494, (August 27, 1991).

  5. Optical Method and Apparatus for Diagnosing Human Spermatozoa, R. R. Alfano, George R. Nagamatsu, Nobutoshi Oka, #5,061,075, (October 29, 1991).

1990

  1. Laser Action in Chromium-doped Forsterite, V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, #4,932,031 (June 5, 1990).

  2. Method for Detecting Cancerous Tissue using Visible Native Luminescence, R. R. Alfano and M. A. Alfano, #4,930,516 (June 5, 1990).

  3. Ultrafast Digital Photonic Siganl Processing using Optical Noncollinear Second Harmonic Generation, Yao Li, R. R. Alfano, G. Eichmann, #4,918,635 (April 17, 1990).

  4. Sensing and Displaying Light Properties, N. H. Schiller, R. R. Alfano, #AU-B-41992/85 - Australian Patent Application No. 41992/85 (February 27, 1986).

  5. Ultrafast Sampling Oscilloscope, R. R. Alfano, A. D. Walser, #4,931,704 (June 5, 1990).

  6. Ultrafast Oscilloscope, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, #4,956,548 (September 11, 1990).

  7. Laser Cavity having an Adjustable Optical Path Length Extender, N. Schiller, R. R. Alfano, #4,969,156 (November 6, 1990).

  8. Method and Apparatus for Generating Ultrashort Light Pulses, R. R. Alfano, P. J. Delfyett, R. Dorsinville, #4,972,423 (November 20, 1990).

  9. SHG Autocorrelator, Y. Takiguchi, R. R. Alfano, Y. Budansky, #4,973,160 (November 27, 1990).

1989

  1. Photomultiplier Tube having a Transmission Strip Line Photocathode and System for use therewith, R. R. Alfano, A. D. Walser, #4,853,595 (August 1989).

  2. Apparatus for Sensing and Displaying the Temporal Properties of a Plurality Light Signals occurring at Different Locations Simultaneously, R. R. Alfano and N. Schiller #607,600 - Israel patent ((July 5,1984) issued October 2, 1989).

  3. Compact Temporal Spectral Photometer, N. Schiller and R. R. Alfano, #1493894 Japanese Patent Application No. 204619/1983 (April 20, 1989).

1987

  1. Picosecond Gated Light Detection Tube, R. R. Alfano, #4,682,020 (July 21, 1987).

  2. Ultrafast Gated Light Detection, R. R. Alfano, #4,659,921 (April 21, 1987).

1986

  1. Compact Temporal Spectral Photometer, N. H. Schiller and R. R. Alfano - #4,630,925 (December 23, 1986).

1985

  1. Method and Apparatus for Detecting the Presence of Caries in Teeth using Visible Luminescence – R. R. Alfano, #RE31,815 (January 29, 1985). Revised version of the patent #4,290,433.

1984

  1. Apparatus and Method for use in Calculating the Time Axis and Intensity Linearity of a Streak Camera, N.   Schiller and R. R. Alfano, #4,435,727 (March 6, 1984).

  2. Picosecond Delay Device, N. Schiller, R. Alfano, #4,438,416 (March 20, 1984).

  3. Emerald Laser, Chromium Doped Beryllium Aluminum Silicate Laser Systems - R. R. Alfano and Janusz M. Buchert #4,464,761 (August 7, 1984).

  4. Method and Apparatus for Detecting the Presence of Caries in Teeth using Visible Light, R. R. Alfano,  #4,479,499 (October 30, 1984).

1981

  1. Method and Apparatus for detecting the Presence of Caries in Teeth using Visible Luminescence - R. R. Alfano, Patent #4,290,433 (September 22, 1981).

  2. Method and Device for Detecting the Threshold of Generation of a Laser Beam - R. R. Alfano and N. H. Schiller, #4,277,669 (July 7, 1981).

  3. Stabilized Pulse Producing Mode Locked Laser System, Robert R. Alfano, Bruce H. Green, #4,291,282  (September 22, 1981).

1974

  1. Picosecond Spectrometer Using Picosecond Continuum - Robert R. Alfano and Stanley L. Shapiro, Patent 3,782,828 (Jan. 1, 1974).